How Plastics Are Made(4)-The Two Plastic Types, Based on Processing

A Thermoset is a polymer that solidifies or “sets” irreversibly when heated or cured. Similar to the relationship between a raw and a cooked egg, a cooked egg cannot revert back to its original form once heated, and a thermoset polymer can’t be softened once “set”. Thermosets are valued for their durability and strength and are used extensively in automobiles and construction including applications such as adhesives, inks, and coatings. The most common thermoset is the rubber truck and automobile tire.  Some examples of thermoset plastics and their product applications are:

•  Mattresses
•  Cushions
•  Insulation

Unsaturated Polyesters:
•  Boat hulls
•  Bath tubs and shower stalls
•  Furniture

•  Adhesive glues
•  Coating for electrical devices
•  Helicopter and jet engine blades

Phenol Formaldehyde:
• Oriented strand board
• Plywood
• Electrical appliances
• Electrical circuit boards and switches

A Thermoplastic is a polymer in which the molecules are held together by weak secondary bonding forces that soften when exposed to heat and return to its original condition when cooled back down to room temperature. When a thermoplastic is softened by heat, it can then be shaped by extrusion, molding, or pressing. Ice cubes are common household items which exemplify the thermoplastic principle. Ice will melt when heated but readily solidifies when cooled. Like a polymer, this process may be repeated numerous times. Thermoplastics offer versatility and a wide range of applications. They are commonly used in food packaging because they can be rapidly and economically formed into any shape needed to fulfill the packaging function. Examples include milk jugs and carbonated soft drink bottles. Other examples of thermoplastics are:

•  Packaging
•  Electrical insulation
•  Milk and water bottles
•  Packaging film
•  House wrap
•  Agricultural film

•  Carpet fibers
•  Automotive bumpers
•  Microwave containers
•  External prostheses

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC):
•  Sheathing for electrical cables
•  Floor and wall coverings
•  Siding
•  Automobile instrument panels

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